Multiple Pressures on European Rivers

Multiple Pressures on European Rivers

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The European multi-pressure map represents the number of pressure indicators (hydrological, morphological and nutrient) exceeding the threshold value for good ecological status in each Functional Elementary Catchment (FEC).


University of Ljubljana (Ljubljana, Slovenia)
National Technical University Of Athens (Athens, Greece)
Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (Berlin, Germany)
Deltares (Delft / Utrecht, Netherlands)
University of Duisburg-Essen, Aquatic Ecology Department (Duisburg / Essen, Germany)
University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology and Aquatic Ecosystem Management (Vienna, Austria)

see also:

Globevnik L., Birk S., Koprivšek M., Mahnkopf J., Panagopoulos Y., Pucher M., Schinegger R., Sanchez M.F., Snoj L., Stefanidis K., Venohr M., 2017. Deliverable 5.1 - Five reports on stressor classification and effects at the European Scale: EU-wide multi-stressors classification and large scale causal analysis; D5.1-1 Part 2: Analysis of pressure - response relations: classification of multiple pressures on broad river types. (link)

with support provided by: EU 7th Framework Programme MARS project

EU FP7     MARS project


Lidija Globevnik , Maja Koprivšek & Luka Snoj


Lidija Globevnik
University of Ljubljana
Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering
Jamova 2
SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia

Related Publications

  • Bell, J. F. 1999. Tree based methods. In: A. H. Fielding, (ed.): Machine learning methods for ecological applications. Dordrecht: Kluwer, pp 89–105.
  • Bratko, I. 1989. Machine learning. In: Gilhooly, K.J. (ed.): Human and Machine Problem Solving. Plenum Press, New York-London, pp. 265–287.
  • European Environment Agency. 2015. Copernicus Initial Operations 2011-2013 - Land Monitoring Service Local Component: Specific Contract No. 3436/B2015/R0-GIO/EEA.56131. Implementing Framework Service Contract No. EEA/MDI/14/001. September 2015. (
  • European Environment Agency. 2012. European catchments and Rivers network system (Ecrins). Version 1, Jun. 2012 (
  • ETC/ICM, 2015. European Freshwater Ecosystem Assessment: Cross-walk between the Water Framework Directive and Habitats Directive types, status and pressures. ETC/ICM Technical Report 2/2015. Magdeburg: European Topic Centre on inland, coastal and marine waters, 95 pp. plus Annexes.
  • Gerritsen, J., Yuan, L.L., Shaw-Allen, P. and Cormier, M.S. 2015. Regional observational studies: Deriving Evidence. In: Norton, S.B, Cormier, S., Suter II, G.W. (eds.): Ecological Causal Assessment. CRC Press, Taylor& Francis Group. London, pp. 169-185.
  • Hering, D. et al. 2015. Managing aquatic ecosystems and water resources under multiple stress - An introduction to the MARS project. Science of the Total Environment 503-504: 10-21.
  • Teichert, N., Borja, A., Chust, G., Uriarte, A. and Lepage, M. 2016. Restoring fish ecological quality in estuaries: Implication of interactive and cumulative effects among anthropogenic stressors. Science of the Total Environment 542, Part A: 383-393.
  • The Nature Conservancy, 2009. Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration Version 7.1 User's Manual. Available online at:
  • Van Beek, L. P. H., M.F.P. Bierkens. 2009. The global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB: conceptualization, parameterization and verification. Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
  • Venohr, M., Hirt, U., Hofmann, J., Opitz, D., Gericke, A., Wetzig, A., Natho, S., Neumann, F.,
    Hürdler, J., Matranga, M., Mahnkopf, J., Gadegast, M., & Behrendt, H. 2011. Modelling of Nutrient Emissions in River Systems – MONERIS – Methods and Background. Int. Rev. Hydrobiol. 96: 435 – 483.
  • Witten, I.H., Frank E. and Hall, M.A. 2011. Data Mining: Practical Machine Learning Tools and Techniques. Morgan Kaufmann, Burlington, MA, 525 pp.

base layer references

  • ECRINS database (European catchments and Rivers network system. Version 1, Jun. 2012).

Related Metadata

Metadata for this dataset can be viewed in the Freshwater Metadatabase:

MARS spatial database

Metadata for this dataset is published in the Freshwater Metadata Journal:

Metadata to the MARS spatial database


This work was supported by the MARS project (Managing Aquatic ecosystems and water Resources under multiple Stress), funded by the European Union under the 7th Framework Programme, contract no. 603378.

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